How can we ensure forest protection and sustainable forest biomass production at the same time? A first-ever global map of certified forest areas, based on a participatory and collaborative mapping approach, contributes to the answer.
New research provides mechanistic insight into how protein dynamics control the activity of a group of enzymes called serine proteases. As serine proteases play pivotal roles in blood coagulation, the innate immune system and tissue remodeling, the results may be important for the development of new drugs for the treatment of various diseases.
A research team used high-valent transition metal catalysts for an unconventional hydrogenation of carboxylic acid groups, common to biomass feedstocks. The high-valent catalysts showed good selectivity under mild conditions.
The CHD8 gene is associated with some cases of human autism. A new study shows that mice with mutated CHD8 show defects in brain development and behavioral changes, and may give insight into genetic causes of autism spectrum disorders.
Researchers in China have developed a genetic engineering approach capable of delivering many genes at once and used it to make rice endosperm -- seed tissue that provides nutrients to the developing plant embryo -- produce high levels of antioxidant-boosting pigments called anthocyanins. The resulting purple endosperm rice holds potential for decreasing the risk of certain cancers, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other chronic disorders.
Harvests from freshwater fisheries such as the Great Lakes could total more than 12 million tons a year globally and contribute more to global food supplies and economies than previous estimates indicate, according to a study.
A naturally occurring human enzyme -called cyclophilin 40 or CyP40- can unravel protein aggregates that contribute to both Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, according to a study. The finding may point toward a new therapeutic strategy for these diseases.
A biologist helps decode the structural complexities of male butterfly ejaculate and co-evolving female reproductive tract. Findings from these biochemical relationships may help unlock certain mysteries of human infertility.
The 'own-point-of-view' perspective video technique, coupled with a subjective re situ interview, provides a better understanding of how physicians make clinical decisions in an authentic treatment setting, compared with the conventional external perspective.
A new study explores the neural correlates of the 'fight-or-flight' response finds that people who choose to flee perceive a greater threat, which leads them to mentally and behaviorally disengage from the situation.
Healthy adults carrying the gene APOE4 -- the strongest known genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) -- may struggle to adapt their brain activity to increasing cognitive demands as they get older, according to a study.
For years, anecdotes and some studies have suggested that chimpanzees are 'super strong' compared to humans, implying that their muscle fibers are superior to humans'. Now a research team reports that contrary to this belief, chimp muscles' maximum dynamic force and power output is just about 1.35 times higher than human muscle of similar size, a difference they call 'modest' compared with historical, popular accounts of chimp 'super strength,' being many times stronger than humans.
How the brain effectively switches between and maintains global states, such as sleep and wakefulness, is not yet understood. We used brainwide functional imaging at single-cell resolution to show that during the developmental stage of lethargus, the Caenorhabditis elegans brain is predisposed to global quiescence, characterized by systemic down-regulation of neuronal activity. Only a few specific neurons are exempt from this effect. In the absence of external arousing cues, this quiescent brain state arises by the convergence of neuronal activities toward a fixed-point attractor embedded in an otherwise dynamic neural state space. We observed efficient spontaneous and sensory-evoked exits from quiescence. Our data support the hypothesis that during global states such as sleep, neuronal networks are drawn to a baseline mode and can be effectively reactivated by signaling from arousing circuits.